According to the climate mitigation strategy developed by researchers Stephen Pacala and Robert Socolow of Princeton University, at least two million megawatts of renewable energy will have to be produced over the next 40 years to completely and efficiently replace current coal-fired and to meet today’s energy needs by 2050. “It is a goal that probably goes beyond what humanity has in the past,” said Keely Wachs, senior director of BrightSource Energy, a company that hopes to build functional power plants with the help of solar energy, capable of providing 2,600 megawatts of energy.
Below we mention these renewable energy sources:
Nuclear energy – is any nuclear technology that can extract useful energy from atomic nuclei through controlled nuclear reactions. The only method by which this can be accomplished is that of nuclear fission. Although uranium is currently used, an element that will not disappear in the next 800 years, nuclear fission will be based, in the future, on hydrogen – an inexhaustible resource, being obtained from water.
Biomass energy – as a renewable energy source, is the biodegradable part of products and residues in the environment, which can be burned as a fuel to produce energy. It includes plant and animal elements, from forestry and other industries, practically all the organic matter produced by the metabolic processes of living organisms, but also the biodegradable part of industrial and urban waste. the whole planet.
Geothermal energy – is a very powerful and efficient way to extract renewable energy from the earth through natural processes. It can be used to power a home or even larger human settlements, in the case of geothermal plants.
Its advantages are its low cost, efficiency, the fact that it does not affect the environment and that it does not require fuel to operate, and the main disadvantage is the relatively small area where it can be obtained, respectively near the tectonic joints. The largest group of geothermal plants is currently located in California. Starting with 2004, countries such as Iceland, the Philippines, El Salvador, Costa Rica and Kenya obtain more than 15% of their electricity using geothermal energy.
Hydroelectricity is the electricity generated by the power of water, with the help of gravity and the phenomenon of water flow. It is the most widespread and used form of renewable energy in the world.
Hydroelectric power plants have been built in isolated areas where other energy sources are not accessible, for example during small rivers. Most small hydroelectric plants are not equipped with dams and do not use the force of the water drop. Hydroelectricity accounts for about 20% of the world’s total electricity and 63% of the electricity generated by the available renewable sources.
Wind energy– means the conversion of wind energy, with the help of wind turbines, into electricity. Large wind farms are connected to local energy networks, with the help of small turbines used to produce electricity for remote areas. Such farms, located on arable land, have the least environmental impact among all energy sources. The wind produces about 1.5% of the world’s electricity, and the energy production thus generated has doubled in recent years. The countries with the most use of this type of energy source are Denmark (more than 19% of the country’s electricity production), Spain, Portugal, Germany and Ireland, developing greatly in the countries around the Baltic Sea and the Sea. North. In Denmark a gigantic wind turbine was manufactured and installed, unmatched as dimensions of any other, in the world. The turbine in Denmark is not only the tallest 220m, but also the strongest in the world. It can produce 260,000 kwh.
Solar energy – uses photovoltaic panels that capture the energy produced by the Sun to generate electricity. It is one of the fastest growing energy sources in the world, and solar panels are becoming more efficient, easier to transport and install. They are currently being used to power ordinary household items, but also to generate electricity for a whole house, by placing them on the roofs of houses.
Radiant energy – has the same effects as electricity, but with only 1% of the costs. However, although some scientific communities have likened it to electricity, it does not behave exactly the same. This natural energy can be obtained directly from the environment or extracted from electricity by a method called fractionation.
Among its most popular uses was one of the oldest wireless phones, invented by Nikola Tesla, but also other devices built over 100 years ago by other pioneering scientists.
Wave energy – is the energy produced by ocean waves, captured and then used to generate electricity, in the desalination process or to pump water into huge reservoirs. The technology used involves a floating buoyant device that will stand on the surface of the ocean waters. This type of energy is more difficult to produce, because it is not possible to predict the direction of the ocean waves. Although there have been attempts to use it since the 19th century, and is currently in use in parts of Europe, wave energy is not widely used as hydroelectricity. The first such plant was built in Portugal, and contains three devices of 750 kW each.
The energy produced by tides – can be generated by the currents of the seas and oceans. Usually it has a smaller impact on ecosystems. The generators are similar to the wind turbines, with the same kind of “pallets”, being set in motion by the action of the currents. Although not yet widespread, such energy has huge potential to be part of the next generation of electricity. Tides can be predicted more easily than the wind and are the only source of energy that depends more on the action of the Moon on the Earth than on the Sun.